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Report

Issue Brief No. 8 Violent Non-state Actors: Emerging threat to economic infrastructure

15 April 2011

A decade ago, terrorists let the world know that economy matters to them. The choice of the World Trade Center (WTC) as a target of the 9/11 attacks was no co-incidence but a carefully crafted decision by the highest ranking echelons of Al Qaeda (AQ). Boastful of the successfully executed operation, Osama Bin Laden declared that while AQ spent only $500,000 on the event, the US lost at least $500 billion, “meaning that every dollar of Al Qaeda defeated a million dollars [of America].” AQ is joined by a range of violent non-state actors (VNSAs) who have put economic targets on their “hit list“.

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Experts on this report

Director of the Strategic Futures Program

Erik Frinking

Erik Frinking is the Director of the Strategic Futures Program at HCSS. He holds a Master’s degree in Political Science from Leiden University.

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Strategic Analyst

Marjolein de Ridder

Marjolein de Ridder is a strategic analyst at HCSS. She holds a degree in Political Science from the University of Leuven and a Master’s degree in International Relations and Diplomacy from Leiden University and the Clingendael Institute.