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Issue Brief No. 8 Violent Non-state Actors: Emerging threat to economic infrastructure

15 April 2011

A decade ago, terrorists let the world know that economy matters to them. The choice of the World Trade Center (WTC) as a target of the 9/11 attacks was no co-incidence but a carefully crafted decision by the highest ranking echelons of Al Qaeda (AQ). Boastful of the successfully executed operation, Osama Bin Laden declared that while AQ spent only $500,000 on the event, the US lost at least $500 billion, “meaning that every dollar of Al Qaeda defeated a million dollars [of America].” AQ is joined by a range of violent non-state actors (VNSAs) who have put economic targets on their “hit list“.

To read the whole report see the PDF on the right.

Experts on this report

Director of the Strategic Futures Program

Erik Frinking

Erik Frinking is the Director of the Strategic Futures Program at HCSS. He holds a Master’s degree in Political Science from Leiden University.

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Strategic Analyst

Marjolein de Ridder

Marjolein de Ridder is a strategic analyst at HCSS. She holds a degree in Political Science from the University of Leuven and a Master’s degree in International Relations and Diplomacy from Leiden University and the Clingendael Institute.