Which minerals are critical for the transition to renewable energy? How will future energy and mineral demand develop? And what will be the implications for international relations?
This paper focuses on the geopolitics of minerals for renewable energy technologies. Motivated by concerns about climate change, depletion of fossil fuel reserves, economic competitiveness and innovation, governments around the world have set ambitious targets for renewable energy. This has increased the demand for certain minerals. At the same time, the international system is in transition to a multipolar world and state capitalist tendencies are becoming more prominent. This paper looks at the how both import dependent and mineral producing countries are responding to these developments and what the implications are for the balance of cooperation and conflict.
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Marjolein de Ridder is a strategic analyst at HCSS. She holds a degree in Political Science from the University of Leuven and a Master’s degree in International Relations and Diplomacy from Leiden University and the Clingendael Institute.